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Cięcie laserowe

Laser cutting

Thanks to its very small beam diameter, the laser can be used in the most diverse cutting operations. The ability to cut complex shapes while maintaining high quality and accuracy makes the laser suitable for processing metallic materials (such as steel, titanium, copper or gold), as well as glass, composites, plastics, wood and semiconductors. Its additional advantages include high process speed, contactlessness and high precision achieved through a very small beam diameter.

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Gas cutting

The most popular technique for cutting structural steels is gas cutting. The special design of the head allows coaxial blowing of a reactive gas (usually oxygen) under pressure at the site of laser beam incident on the material. Due to the reaction of the medium with the heated and partially molten metal, an oxidation process takes place, generating high energy. Even several times the energy of the laser, while blowing the molten material out of the resulting hole. Both of these features allow laser cutting at high speeds and processing of sheet metal up to 40 mm thick.

Cutting by smelting

Laser cutting by melting is a method used for materials that melt. As in the gas-cutting process, the special design of the laser head makes it possible to introduce compressed inert gas (nitrogen, helium or argon) into the crater formed by the laser, which results in the blowing out of the molten substance and prevents oxidation of the processed edges.

Due to the chemical inertness of the gas, no combustion takes place, so the laser beam is the only source of energy in the melting process. This means that the operating speed is closely related to the thickness of the material being cut. For thin sheets, it is similar to that of gas cutting. Thick sheets, on the other hand, require a much lower operating feed rate than in gas cutting.

Sublimation cutting

Sublimation cutting is used wherever high edge quality and high precision processing are required. The laser beam heats the material above the evaporation temperature, ensuring only minimal melting. As a result of sublimation, high pressure is created in the hole, leading to the molten substance being ejected outside the working area. To prevent oxidation of the edges of the workpiece, shielding gases such as helium, argon or nitrogen are used.

Heating the material above the vaporization temperature requires a high power density of the laser beam, making the process speed much slower than with other cutting techniques. As a result, the method in question is most often used for cutting materials with a low vaporization temperature, such as organic substances, plastics or wood. For metallic materials, it is used only when very high precision cutting is required, such as in medicine.

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